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Date: 15-04-21

Legionella Sources

John A. Herbert
John Herbert
Legionella Risk Assessment

Since the discovery of the Legionellae genus in 1976 we have slowly learned more about this deadly pathogen. There are hundreds of papers, codes and guidelines, and yet every day people still contract this potentially fatal disease.

Legionalla occurs in nature at low concentrations, surviving tradiional water treatment, it enters the manmade systems installed in our buildings, and factories, where given warm and stagnent conditions it may rapidly grow.

legionella sources

Many people ask what equipment and devices have been associated with Legionnaires' disease and legionella outbreaks? The question almost misses the point, new and novel equipment is discovered, so a historcial list has little or no value.

Here is a list of some of typical equipment and devices implicated with Legionella infection (distributors and diseminators) in the past:

  • Air Handling Units (air conditioning)
  • Birthing Pool/Bath (Japan)
  • Car Wash Machine (commercial type)
  • Cooling Towers
  • Concrete plant jet washer (UK)
  • Decorative water feature (fountain, USA)
  • Dental machinery
  • Evaporative Cooler (swamp cooler)
  • Fire services hose reel
  • Food Display Counter (Cardiff)
  • Footbath
  • Fountain (USA)
  • Hot Water systems
  • Humidifiers
  • Hydro Therapy pool
  • Ice making machine (in hospitals)
  • Lathe Coolant (USA)
  • Misting Devices (for cooling)
  • Nebulizer (respirator)
  • Olsen (Japan spa)
  • Pneumatic vessel
  • Respirator (Hong Kong)
  • Shower Heads
  • Sight Glass (mist leakage)
  • Sewerage Treatment Plant (France)
  • Swimming Pools
  • Whirlpool / spa - hotel
  • Whirlpool / spa - exhibition
  • Whirlpool / spa - trade fair
  • Whirlpool / spa - retail
  • Wash basin (Tamar, Hong Kong)

  • also here is an older paper, published in 1994 with references, Click here to download but remember, that is not the whole picture, new and novel diseminators are discovered constantly. Risk Assessment is the key strategy.

    Legionella Audit

    Building owners and operators have the fiduciary (legal) responsibility to protect the general public, their staff and occupants from health hazards. Employers also have duties, under the relevant labour ordinance, to provide a healthy and safe working environment for staff.

    Kelcroft's Legionella Audit is a methodical engineering assessment of the risk for your building, hotel, campus, process water system, or factory.

    legionnaires disease risk assessment

    The Kelcroft assessment includes a review of facility design, operation, maintenance and any treatment programmes to help facilities owners minimise the risk of problems related to waterborne pathogens, and ensure compliance with applicable local and international guidelines, and regulations.

    What's Next

    Order your leginella risk assessment today call +(852) 2335 9830

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